Chapter 1
 Chapter 2
 Chapter 3
 Chapter 4
 Chapter 5
 Chapter 6
 Chapter 7
 Chapter 8
 Chapter 9
 Chapter 10
 Chapter 11
 Chapter 12 1/2/3
 Chapter 12 4/5
 Chapter 13
 Chapter 14
 Chapter 15
 Chapter 16
 Chapter 17
 Chapter 18
 Chapter 19




Holt Grades 8 - 12  

Biology Chapter 4 Revision Page 87 - 112

What is Climate? Lesson 4 -- 1 & 4 -- 2

1.     Weather: is the day to day condition of earths atmosphere at a particular time and place.

2.     Climate: on the hand refer's to the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular regions.

The Greenhouse Effect

Carbon dioxide, Methane, water vapor and a few other atmospheric gasses, trap heat energy and maintain Earth's temperature range.

1.     The natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of green house gasses is called the green house effect.

2.     The Biological influence on Organisms within an ecosystem are called biotic factors.

3.     Physical, or non living, factors that Shape ecosystem are called Abiotic factors.

4.     A Niche is the full range pf physical and biological conditions in which the organisms uses those conditions.

5.     The term Resource refers to any necessity of life, such as water nutrients light, food or Space.

6.     A fundamental rule in ecology, the Competitive exclusion principle, states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.

7.     Predation is An Interaction in which one organ captures and feeds on another organisms.

8.     Any relationship in which two species live closely together is called symbiosis which means living together.

Community Interaction Note

Community interactions, such as Competition Predation, and Various forms of Symbiosis, can powerfully affect on ecosystem.

1.     In Mutualism both species benefits from the relationship.

2.     In Commensalism, one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.

3.     In parasitism one organisms Lives on or Inside another organisms and harm it.

4.     This series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time is called ecological succession.

5.     On land succession that occurs on surface where no soil exists is called Primary succession.

6.     The First species to populate the area are called Pioneer species.

7.     When a disturbance of same kind changes an existing community without removing the soil, then secondary succession can follow.

Lesson 4--3 Biomes

  • Plant and Animals also exhibit Variations in Tolerance, or ability to survive and reproduce under conditions that differ from their optional conditions. Plant and Animals of the Arizona.
  • The Climate in a small area that differs from the climate around it is called a Microclimate.
  • The Worlds Major biomes include tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical Savanna desert, temperature grassland temperature woodland and shrub land, temperature forest northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest and tundra.

Lesson 4--4 Aquatic Ecosystem

  • Plankton is a general term for the tiny free floating or weakly swimming organisms that live in both freshwater and salt water environments.
  • Single-celled algae or Phytoplankton are supported by Nutrients in the water and form the base of Many aquatic food webs.
  • Planktonic animals or Zooplankton feed on the Phytoplankton.
  • Detritus is made up of tiny pieces of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of the estuary's food web.
  • Salt marshes are temperate-zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the law tide line and by seagrasses under water.
  • Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands that are widespread across tropical regions, including southern Florida and Hawaii.
  • Photosynthesis is limited to this well-lit upper layer known as the Photic zone.
  • Below the Photic zone is the aphotic zone which is permanently dark.
  • Zonation is the permanent horizontal banding of organism that live in a particular habitat.
  • The  Coastal ocean extends from the low tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf the relatively shallow border that surrounds the continent.
  • Kelp forests are named for their dominant organisms a giant brown alga that can grow at extraordinary rates - as much as 50 centimeter a day.
  • Coral reefs are named for the Coral Animals whose hard calcium carbonate skeletons make up their primary structure.
  • Scientists refer to these organisms as the benthos.

 To refresh your memory please go to your biology book for the figures & pictures.