Biology Chapter 4
Revision Page 87 - 112
What is Climate? Lesson 4 -- 1 & 4 -- 2
1. Weather: is the day to day condition of earths atmosphere at a particular
time and place.
2. Climate: on the hand refer's to the average, year-after-year conditions of
temperature and precipitation in a particular regions.
Carbon dioxide, Methane,
water vapor and a few other atmospheric gasses, trap heat energy and maintain
Earth's temperature range.
1. The natural situation in
which heat is retained by this layer of green house gasses is called the green house
2. The Biological influence
on Organisms within an ecosystem are called biotic factors.
3. Physical, or non living,
factors that Shape ecosystem are called Abiotic factors.
4. A Niche is the full range pf physical and biological
conditions in which the organisms uses those conditions.
5. The term Resource refers to any necessity of life, such as water
nutrients light, food or Space.
6. A fundamental rule in
ecology, the Competitive exclusion principle, states that no two species can occupy the same
niche in the same habitat at the same time.
7. Predation is An Interaction in
which one organ captures and feeds on another organisms.
8. Any relationship in
which two species live closely together is called symbiosis which means living together.
Community Interaction Note
Community interactions, such as Competition
Predation, and Various forms of Symbiosis, can powerfully affect on ecosystem.
1. In Mutualism both species benefits from the relationship.
2. In Commensalism, one member of the association benefits and the
other is neither helped nor harmed.
3. In parasitism one organisms Lives on or Inside another
organisms and harm it.
4. This series of
predictable changes that occurs in a community over time is called ecological
5. On land succession that
occurs on surface where no soil exists is called Primary
6. The First species to
populate the area are called Pioneer species.
7. When a disturbance of
same kind changes an existing community without removing the soil, then secondary
succession can follow.
- Plant and Animals also exhibit Variations in Tolerance, or ability to survive and reproduce under conditions
that differ from their optional conditions. Plant and Animals of the
- The Climate in a small area that differs from the
climate around it is called a Microclimate.
- The Worlds Major biomes include tropical rain forest,
tropical dry forest, tropical Savanna desert, temperature grassland
temperature woodland and shrub land, temperature forest northwestern
coniferous forest, boreal forest and tundra.
4--4 Aquatic Ecosystem
- Plankton is a general term for the tiny free floating or weakly
swimming organisms that live in both freshwater and salt water environments.
- Single-celled algae or Phytoplankton are supported by Nutrients in the water and form the
base of Many aquatic food webs.
- Planktonic animals or Zooplankton feed on the Phytoplankton.
- Detritus is made up of tiny pieces of organic material that
provide food for organisms at the base of the estuary's food web.
- Salt marshes are temperate-zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant
grasses above the law tide line and by seagrasses under water.
- Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands that are widespread across tropical
regions, including southern Florida and Hawaii.
- Photosynthesis is limited to this well-lit upper layer
known as the Photic
- Below the Photic zone is the aphotic zone which is permanently dark.
- Zonation is the permanent horizontal banding of organism that
live in a particular habitat.
- The Coastal ocean extends from the low tide mark to the outer edge of the
continental shelf the relatively shallow border that surrounds the
- Kelp forests are named for their dominant organisms a giant brown
alga that can grow at extraordinary rates - as much as 50 centimeter a
- Coral reefs are named for the Coral Animals whose hard calcium
carbonate skeletons make up their primary structure.
- Scientists refer to these organisms as the benthos.
To refresh your memory please go to your biology book for the
figures & pictures.